SOx and PM
Oxides of Sulphur (SOx):
The SOx formation is caused by the oxidation of the sulphur contained in the fuel with the O2 available in the combustion air. The SOx concentrations depend on the sulphur content of the diesel fuel and the fuel consumption of the engine. SOx reductions in the diesel exhaust gas can only be achieved through the use of low sulphur fuels.
Particulate matter (PM):
These include all substances (with the exception of water), which under normal conditions are present as small solid or liquid particles in the exhaust gases. PM is usually defined as "any material, other than water, in the exhaust of a diesel engine which can be filtered after dilution with ambient air". These particulates normally consist of a mixture of carbon (soot), hydrocarbons and sulphuric acid. Therefore we can assume that conditions, which affect the formation of soot, hydrocarbons and oxides of sulfur, will affect the particulate emission.
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